Cooperativismo y Desarrollo, May-August 2023; 11(2), e624
Translated from the original in Spanish


Original article

The training process. Challenges to achieve superior results in an organization


El proceso de capacitación. Retos para lograr resultados superiores en una organización


O processo de treinamento. Desafios para alcançar resultados superiores em uma organização


Katia Pérez Morejón1 0009-0000-0609-566X
Deysi Alfonso Porraspita2 0000-0001-8914-9482

1 Canning and Vegetable Factory "La Conchita". Pinar del Río, Cuba.
2 University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Pinar del Río, Cuba.


Received: 18/05/2023
Accepted: 24/06/2023


The changes occurring in the business environment, influenced by factors such as innovation, the development of information and communications, cultural values, the environment, among others, are essential elements when it comes to managing the training of human resources in an organization. These transformations require prepared personnel, capable of generating innovative and strategic solutions, hence it is interesting to analyze whether training really generates an impact and thus a change in performance at all organizational levels, establishing challenges that contribute to the strengthening of all the interests that converge in the organization. In this sense, the objective of this article is to identify the challenges to achieve superior results through the training process. Concluding that training should be considered the center of productive activity, that it is a process that should be managed in order to improve performance through the promotion and strengthening of competencies.

Keywords: training; training process; results; competencies.


Los cambios que ocurren en el entorno empresarial, influenciados por factores como la innovación, el desarrollo de la información y las comunicaciones, los valores culturales, el medioambiente, entre otros, constituyen elementos esenciales a la hora de gestionar la capacitación de los recursos humanos en una organización. Estas transformaciones exigen que se cuente con personal preparado, capaz de generar soluciones innovadoras y estratégicas, de ahí que es interesante analizar si realmente la capacitación genera un impacto y con ello una modificación del desempeño a todos los niveles organizacionales, estableciendo retos que aporten al fortalecimiento de todos los intereses que confluyen en la organización. En este sentido, el presente artículo tiene como objetivo: Identificar los retos para lograr resultados superiores mediante el proceso de capacitación. Concluyendo que la capacitación debe ser considerada el centro de la actividad productiva, que es un proceso que debe ser gestionado en aras de mejorar el desempeño a través del impulso y fortalecimiento de competencias.

Palabras clave: capacitación; proceso de capacitación; resultados; competencias.


As mudanças que ocorrem no ambiente empresarial, influenciadas por fatores como a inovação, o desenvolvimento da informação e comunicação, os valores culturais, o ambiente, entre outros, constituem elementos essenciais quando se trata de gerir a formação de recursos humanos numa organização. Essas transformações exigem que haja pessoal capacitado, capaz de gerar soluções inovadoras e estratégicas, por isso é interessante analisar se o treinamento realmente gera impacto e com ele uma mudança de atuação em todos os níveis organizacionais, estabelecendo desafios que contribuam para o fortalecimento de todos os interesses que se reúnem na organização. Nesse sentido, este artigo tem como objetivo: Identificar os desafios para alcançar resultados superiores por meio do processo de treinamento. Concluindo que a formação deve ser considerada o centro da atividade produtiva, sendo este um processo que deve ser gerido de forma a melhorar o desempenho através da promoção e reforço de competências.

Palavras-chave: treinamento; processo de treinamento; resultados; competências.



The pace of social, technological, economic, political, environmental, demographic and legal changes generates in organizations and individuals the imperative need to change in order to keep up to date. In this context, organizational learning is becoming increasingly relevant and this presents a great challenge in terms of business continuity and organizational resilience.

Learning does not happen in isolation. It requires understanding the social, technical, economic, political, environmental, legal and demographic trends that shape organizations.

It is proposed that it is the training process, applied in a systematic and organized manner, through which people acquire knowledge, develop skills and competencies according to defined objectives, it must be proactive and creative, in such a way that it requires innovation in its management. Regarding the concept of training in organizations, López Montalvo et al. (2021) agree that training refers to the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for the performance of a certain position or job. Training should be considered an investment and not an expense.

Referring to the training process, Susomrith et al. (2019) indicate that training is a short-term process and a long-term investment; well-executed training plans increase knowledge, competencies and work performance, which allows raising the quality and productivity of the organization. They indicate that there is a positive relationship between training and performance, showing that as long as training is constant, it makes the quality of work more efficient and improves performance activities in the organization. There is agreement with Lira García and Brunett Zarza (2021), in the emphasis given to the need to evaluate the quality of training and the transformation of the quality of the worker in his performance.

Regarding the importance of examining the impact of training on workers' job functions, it is considered that it is one of the main sources of well-being for people working in the organization and has an impact on productivity and the work environment.

There is agreement with the idea of Ortiz Gutiérrez et al. (2021), in outlining that the evaluation of the impact of training for the organization makes it possible to establish its usefulness during its execution, to define the orientations and follow-up that should be given to training and to improve the quality of future actions. In view of the above, it is suggested that a clear understanding of the impact of training requires an appropriate selection and frequent assessment of information, the quality of the qualification of the results and the regularity of the effects, the quality of variables and indicators selected in correspondence with the sector or branch to which the organization belongs, and the quality of the synthesis and systemic analysis.

The research is convenient because with its development it is intended to identify the challenges to achieve superior results through the training process, which become essential to evaluate the transformation caused in the individual, collective, organizational and social performance as a tool for decision making.



The analysis starts from the historical-logical method that provided the path to follow for the bibliographic analysis, the antecedents, theoretical foundations, stages and fundamental trends in the process of Training Management in the national and international context, in addition to the theoretical basis of the most important aspects to measure its impact on the organization through a system of indicators, organized and integrated.

The structural systemic method was used to study the problem and the object in terms of its components and the links established between them, thus determining their structure and dynamics.

The measurement method was used to obtain primary information on the current state of the training process in the literature.



Theoretical and methodological bases of the training process

Regarding training, Werther et al. (2014) reveal that it is aimed at increasing the knowledge and skills of the worker for the performance of a given job. These authors emphasize the purpose of training as an aid to employees in order to achieve the enterprise `s objectives and acquire competencies by providing them with the possibility of attaining knowledge and strengthening their competencies through learning. These competencies will enable them to face the dynamic business world, in the midst of constant technological, economic and social changes. It is agreed that training is the process aimed at the development, deepening and updating of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes, with a formative, permanent, systemic, flexible, contextualized, directed, differentiated character, and takes place during the work performance.

Labrador Machín et al. (2019) agree that management training implies establishing a series of strategies and actions where theoretical knowledge constitutes a guide for action and not a set of empty theories. Hence, knowledge is generated by the interaction between the participants, the coordinator-educator and the elements of the reality they are trying to address for the sake of its transformation. In this context, the proactive nature of training management is evident, it is agreed that training management involves diagnosing the need for learning, planning and designing the training response, conducting and facilitating the process and evaluating the results achieved.

Bohórquez et al. (2020) consider that training is motivational and acquires today greater importance for the success of organizations by playing an essential role in sustaining and reinforcing it, so it has become part of the backbone of strategy implementation; in addition, rapidly changing technology requires from man a continuous improvement of his knowledge, skills and abilities, in order to manage new processes and systems.

Trends in the training management process

Chiavenato (2021) shows that personnel training is of utmost importance in an enterprise because it guarantees the development of human talent in order to maximize the effectiveness of procedures and obtain good results in the performance of an enterprise's collaborators. This author emphasizes key variables of the training process and, above all, the necessary optimization of the resources used in this process so that it becomes a real space for transformation and contribution of competencies.

In previous sections, the detection of training needs was described, i.e., the preliminary diagnosis as a step to identify the need. As mentioned above, the definition of the instruments and techniques to be applied in order to obtain the necessary inputs to plan the actions to be carried out is a determining factor in this step.

It is essential to design the training program to take into account the needs. Here it is important to have several alternatives to shape the final program, depending on the assumptions to be fulfilled, based on flexibility. The training program is put into practice during its implementation and realization. Finally, the evaluation of the result is carried out, in which the results obtained during the training process at all levels are assessed.

What has been described so far indicates the necessary organization of the training process. In this sense, García Peñalvo et al. (2020) harmonize the preliminary steps that need to be fulfilled in order to have a training program where the following aspects are highlighted: detecting training needs, also known as diagnosis; determining the objectives of training and development; at this stage, the elements to be considered in the evaluation stage, design of program contents and principles to be considered during the delivery of the training, the delivery to develop skills (aptitudes and attitudes) and the evaluation that can be, should also be identified. The above is considered relevant since they constitute obligatory references to guarantee the quality of training and with it the transformation and the desired competencies.

Individual, organizational and social performance

To perform this analysis, it is started from what is referred by Chagray Ameriet et al. (2020), who indicate that job performance is the effectiveness of the personnel working within the organizations, functioning the person with a great job and job satisfaction.

Valiente et al. (2020) refer that the body of knowledge in this area of knowledge and professional practice is fundamentally nourished by theories and intervention models that study organizational behavior in the world of work and organizations. These referents are distinguished by their different emphases on the link between competency-based management and its impact on the performance of the organization.

Regarding organizational performance, Vecino Rondán et al. (2020, p. 256) state: "it recognizes the perception of workers, where the subjectivity of the intangible is precisely considered, as well as the need to increase productivity, which can be translated into the generation of sustainable competitive advantages".

It is agreed that organizational culture is a collective construction determined by social action. Thus, identity and belonging to the organization lead the organization's members to believe and behave in a way similar to that of other members and which they have consolidated over time.

Bernal González et al. (2020, p. 216) state that organizational performance consists of the capacity to acquire and process human, material and financial resources to achieve organizational goals. The importance of its study lies basically in the opportunity for improvement that it provides to decision makers, by determining whether the actions implemented are generating the desired results.

In this analysis, it is important what is related to the social performance of the organization and its relationship with the employee training process in terms of results, in which it is agreed with Peña Rivas and Villón Perero (2018), who relate aspects such as the configuration of principles of social responsibility, the processes of response to social requirements, policies, programs and tangible results that reflect the entity's relations with society, since this is established as a tool or guide to manage the resources that a society has to meet the needs and creates, in turn, the opportunity, to the community as a whole, to improve the quality of life of the present, without affecting future generations.

Learning process and its impact on the organization

Learning is the process by which human beings acquire the skills, abilities, knowledge, behaviors or values necessary for their personal development.

Learning styles are characteristics and peculiarities of a human being that allude to the way in which he/she appropriates knowledge at the cognitive and social levels, according to the contexts in which he/she develops. These qualities are expressed through the personality, behavior of each individual that is established throughout his development (Espinar Álava & Vigueras Moreno, 2020, p. 5).

Díaz Leyva and Marrero Fornari (2021, p. 35) state: The role of learning and knowledge management is of vital importance in the development of the training processes to occur within the training process, where the perception, stimulation and individual needs of each worker play a fundamental role in effectively carrying out this training process. In addition, the social sciences also play a fundamental role, the analysis of all the elements, whether social, cognitive or organizational, that favor or not the learning and the subsequent application of this knowledge that has a long-term impact on organizational results.

On the subject of the evaluation of the impact of training, it is suggested that the evaluation of the impact of training on human resources in organizations has an integrating impact that transcends its frameworks.

Regarding the assessment of the impact that training can have, it is considered a type of evaluation that makes it possible to identify the effects that training has on the organization and, thus, to determine the benefits that it contributes to the achievement of organizational objectives.

From the above it can be deduced that the learning process has a great impact on the results of the organization, since it causes changes in people that contribute to their training and behavior in the workplace, which generates skills and abilities in the area in which the trained person works and in the organization, and it is important to note that without individual learning it would be impossible to reach the collective and, therefore, organizational development.

On measuring the impact of training

Measuring the impact of training combines quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine more broadly whether the project has or could have the expected effects on the beneficiaries (individuals, groups of individuals or institutions).

Guerra Castillo (2021) refers that aspects related to the evaluation of training and its impact on individual, collective and organizational performance constitute an essential component for any organization.

It is agreed with Arteaga Prado and Silvera García (2019) that the impact of training is related to the changes that occur in the lives of people who work in organizations and who are benefited by the actions of training, which allows transforming in a positive sense the business reality, which becomes higher levels of efficiency, effectiveness and competitiveness of the organization.

The impact of training is an essential tool within the control function in organizations, its measuring provides an effective management of human resources in terms of knowledge, values, skills, experiences and motivations.

In order to measure the impact of training in the organizational environment, the evaluation of the transfer of what has been learned to the performance of each worker must be carried out, which will have a direct effect on the proper functioning of the process in which he/she is involved.

The evaluation of the impact must be seen through the evaluation and its dynamics, it has a periodic character and takes place during the process in which the worker learns and its transforming dynamics is when this knowledge has been internalized by the worker and applied in his job, strengthening and developing competencies.

Bú Alba et al. (2019, p. 427) state: Training and the indicators to evaluate its impact have been developing under the perspective of what the job needs, which responds to principles of specialization and division of labor that have promoted higher levels of productivity and increased profits, but not to the current models of development in balance with the environment. This conception of the functioning of organizations is based on the very concept of development as economic growth.

Regarding the indicators that have traditionally been used to measure the impact of training, the most commonly used have been oriented towards evaluating the development of competencies in organizations, through their impact on the organization's economic growth indicators.

The evaluation of the employee's performance makes evident the qualitative gap for the successful performance in the position, establishing the difference that exists between the labor competencies required for the position and those that the employee actually has, that is, between the real state of the competencies that have been developed by the employee in relation to those required or designed for the job.

Measuring the impact of training in organizations is essential, and it is suggested that impact evaluation should be seen in two stages: evaluation and transformation. Evaluation is periodic and takes place during the process in which the worker learns, and transformation is when this knowledge has been internalized by the worker and applied in the workplace.

Hence, the evaluation of the impact of training on individual, collective, organizational and social performance is a tool for decision making, which makes it possible to identify the changes resulting from the application of new knowledge, work styles and innovation projects in the economic and social practice of the organization.

Training challenges to achieve superior results in an organization

The improvement and updating of knowledge are a window to innovation, as it allows employees to acquire new tools, generating a positive impact on processes and, therefore, on productivity and results in general.

Although the training process is managed and there is clarity in the stages to be followed, it is necessary to consider, in a precise manner, what are the challenges of this, in the results of an organization.

Chiavenato (2020) points out that training is a process that enables the trainee to appropriate knowledge, capable of modifying the behavior of individuals and the organization to which they belong. This author refers that the challenges of this process are articulated and managed as a tool that enables learning and therefore contributes to the correction of staff attitudes in the workplace.

In accordance with the above, the following are identified as challenges to be overcome:

It is obvious that there are several obstacles to its implementation. However, it should always be remembered that training is a window to knowledge, innovation and improvement, which are necessary to help enterprises achieve their objectives.

In conclusion, training and the evaluation of its impact on the enterprise show short-term results; therefore, it is necessary for the enterprise to strengthen this strategy, so that the process is developed continuously. The study developed evidences the guarantee offered by the training process focused on proactivity and innovation.

The advantages of effective training in organizations make it possible to identify the challenges to be overcome and thus the aspects related to the importance of generating solid strategies and policies that guarantee the updating of knowledge in the workplace and how the results focus on the sustainability of the organization over time.

Likewise, this process must be related to the economic, human and financial resources that make the impact of the training more effective and adjusted to the particular situation of the entity.



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Conflict of interest

Authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


Authors' contribution

Katia Pérez Morejón identified the problem to be studied and prepared the first version of the article.

Deysi Alfonso Porraspita traced the methodological study of the article to achieve the final objective.

Both authors critically reviewed the writing of the manuscript and approve the version finally submitted.


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