Cooperativismo y Desarrollo, mayo-agosto 2019; 7(2): 243-253
Translated from the original in Spanish


Procedure to evaluate the impact of the training of academic programs for social development


Procedimiento para evaluar el impacto de la capacitación de programas académicos para el desarrollo social


Yairín Arteaga Prado1, Frank Alberto Silvera García2

1Departamento de Preparación y Superación de Cuadros. Universidad de Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca". Pinar del Río. Cuba. Email:
2Estudiante de postgrado de la Maestría en Dirección. Cuba. Email:


Received: January 12th, 2019.
Accepted: June 4th, 2019.


The Diploma in Business Direction and Management arises from the need to prepare the main cadres and their substitutes of the State and Government entities and their business system in order to facilitate efficient performance in new tasks based on the agreements adopted by the VI and VII Congresses of the Communist Party of Cuba on the Guidelines of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution and the implementation of the new Cuban economic model. The need to evaluate the impact of the training received by the cadres through this diploma has been assessed, a necessary and important element to take into account that our country needs skilled people capable of managing change through innovative ideas in view of the scenarios that are visualized on the horizon. However, the evaluation of the impact of the diploma course and its results on the productive process of the organizations has had its inaccuracies, due to the lack of a tool that allows this analysis to be carried out in an organized and profound manner. It is precisely the objective of this work to design a procedure that facilitates the evaluation of the impact of the training of the cadres and substitutes that have taken the diploma and that allows its application in any business organization.

Keywords: business management; training; impact of training; procedure


El Diplomado de Dirección y Gestión Empresarial surge ante la necesidad de preparar a los cuadros principales y sus reservas de las entidades del Estado y del Gobierno y su sistema empresarial en aras de facilitar el desempeño eficiente en tareas nuevas a partir de los acuerdos adoptados por el VI y VII Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba sobre los Lineamientos de la Política Económica y Social del Partido y la Revolución y la implementación del nuevo modelo económico cubano. Se ha valorado la necesidad de evaluar el impacto de la capacitación recibida por los cuadros a través de este diplomado, elemento necesario e importante al tener en cuenta que nuestro país necesita de personas hábiles, capaces de gestionar el cambio mediante ideas innovadoras ante los escenarios que se visualizan en el horizonte. No obstante, la evaluación del impacto de la capacitación del diplomado y sus resultados en el proceso productivo de las organizaciones ha tenido sus inexactitudes, por no contar con una herramienta que permita realizar este análisis de forma organizada y profunda. Es precisamente el objetivo de este trabajo diseñar un procedimiento que facilite la evaluación del impacto de la capacitación de los cuadros y reservas que han cursado el diplomado y que permita su aplicación en cualquier organización empresarial.

Palabras claves: gestión empresarial; capacitación; impacto de la capacitación; procedimiento



The country is immersed in a process of updating its economic model, where the knowledge and know-how of the cadres and reserves in the organizations play a fundamental role in promoting the development and diversification of production and services, with an adequate use of human capital and other resources, based on management systems, in accordance with established standards and customer demands.

A substantial element to be taken into account is training, in accordance with the demands of the globalized world, which has forced people, within business organizations, to develop skills that allow them to improve and adapt to the needs that the work and organizational environment demands of them. In this regard, Peter Drucker, quoted by Orozco & Aquino (2011) argued that the modern company is a knowledge-based organization or, otherwise, is an obsolete organization, unable to compete in the market, with its competitors. This is why business managers, at all levels, must put special interest in the training, both of their employees and their own, which needs to be evaluated systematically to assess its effectiveness.

Training acquires an important weight in the updating of the economic model and is explicitly recognized in guidelines 104 and 107, linked to science, technology, innovation and environment policy, 155 and 208 of social policy and 254 which refers to the improvement of management systems and organs (Improve and guarantee a training program for directors, direct executors and workers for the implementation of approved policies, verifying the control of what is regulated and demanding compliance) (National Assembly of People's Power, 2017).

As part of the systematic training for cadres and reserves, graduates in Public Administration and in Business Management are designed.

The importance of improving the performance of the cadres in the decision-making process, as well as the evaluation of the impact of the training, are lines of work that the company must develop in a timely manner.

Taking as a starting point the analysis of Reza (2007), where it states that the evaluation of training in organizations should be structured with a comprehensive, reliable, clear or objective scheme, so that the resulting information is verifiable and sustainable for decision making. It is proposed as objective of this work: to design a procedure to evaluate the impact of the training of the Diploma of Business Direction and Management in the province of Pinar del Río.



The design of the procedure is approached starting from a systemic conception, which allows a holistic analysis, which allowed diagnosing the impact that the training of the cadres has had from the transferred knowledge, after addressing in the diploma program the different areas of knowledge or knowledge. To this end, elements of qualitative and quantitative analysis are combined, based on information from secondary and primary sources. The conception or approach developed is materialistic-dialectical, all of which makes possible the analysis of the research object, studied in its own development process and according to the objectives proposed in the research. Among the methods used, they stand out:

Theoretical method: in the construction of the referential theoretical framework, we used the historical and logical, analysis and synthesis, structural systemic, holistic-dialectic and induction-deduction.

Empirical method: preparation of the theoretical methodological proposal, using the analysis of documents, observation (non-participatory), techniques such as surveys and interviews.



Training of cadres and reserve personnel

The training of cadres and reserve personnel is one of the essential elements of policies and organizational systems, because by increasing their knowledge and skills makes them more competent and creative to diagnose, design strategies and solve increasingly complex and heterogeneous problems, work in teams, develop communication in interpersonal relationships and solve conflicts.

The relevance of the topic forces to handle a practical concept of training, when operating training programs inside the organizations.

According to Siliceo (2006), training consists of a planned activity based on the real needs of a company or organization and oriented towards a change in the knowledge, skills and attitudes of the collaborator.

In today's world, where behavior is modified and permanently faces adjustment situations, training must promote the application of theories, methods, techniques, experiences and skills according to the task and to comply with the norms established in the business order, so that not only procedures are followed and work routines are repeated, but also contribute new and challenging ideas.

Therefore, in the search for higher levels of economic and social efficiency, as well as to carry out the transformations derived from the process of implementation of a new economic model, it is necessary to have trained directors with labor competencies, integrated into the new organizational culture and who act as agents of change.

Training Impact Assessment

From the theoretical point of view, it is valid to undertake some concepts that serve as an approach to the relevant aspects that are dealt with and take from them the contextual elements that are used for the development of the work.

When defining the impact of training, it refers to the set of significant and lasting changes, positive and negative, foreseen or unforeseen, in the lives of people, organizations and society (...) value judgments on the dynamics of quantitative and qualitative changes operated in people and organizations benefited by the action of training, establishing a direct or indirect causal link (Cabrera Rodríguez, 2004).

Evaluation is a controversial issue because the design characteristics of quantitative and qualitative aspects, methodological rigour, dimensions, variables, methods and instruments are defined in terms of objectives. For this work, reference is made to the criterion of Nirenberg et al. (2000) where it is assumed that the central question is not the type of techniques to be used, which may vary according to needs, but the evaluative design, which implies the theoretical definition of the problem and the selection of the relevant dimensions for the study of the phenomenon.

On the other hand, the evaluation of the impact of training as a process, according to Castellanos, Forgas and Callis (2010), must assess to what extent and with what depth the change has taken place and its management with respect to the initial behaviour, the desired state foreseen in the objectives and the evaluation of its impact on professional practice.

Description of the proposed procedure

Different are the forms that describe how to define a procedure, either by the uniformity in its contents or by the intention of fulfilling the objectives set by those who apply it.

The Cuban standard NC-ISO 9000 (Oficina Nacional de Normalización, 2005) defines it as the specified way to carry out an activity or a process; on the other hand, Molina, quoted by Negrín (2017), defines it " the set of actions ordered and oriented to the attainment of a goal".

On the other hand, in the glossary of terms of the Internal Control System of the Comptroller General's Office of the Republic of Cuba (2012), they describe a procedure such as: Specific way to perform an activity, which must be contained in approved documents, which includes the object and scope of an activity, what must be done and who must do it, when, where and how it must be done, what materials and equipment and documents must be used and how it must be controlled and registered.

The author, for the development of this work, assumes the concept of Negrín (2017), where she states that a procedure contains every action that is developed, related to those rules, norms or protocols that aim to find a certain result; that is, the specific form that describes how to achieve the desired results with specific instructions for the people involved.

The procedure presented in this paper has 4 stages and 39 actions that, once applied, demonstrate the performance of the directors graduated of the diploma and willingness to solve problems, based on innovative ideas.

The stages of the procedure are described below:

Stage 1. Compilation of information on the results of the diploma course

It includes actions that allow the evaluation committee to get to know the organization. In addition to obtaining data that can be used to compare how the organization was before and after being trained in the diploma, number of trained and generalization of the results of the dissertations.

Stage 2. Diagnosis of the implementation of the contents of the diploma course

It is part of a group of actions aimed at obtaining information on the organization's performance in terms of the following areas: business management and the management of logistics, maintenance, human capital, quality and the environment, innovation, the use of information and communication techniques and economic-financial administration.

At this stage, surveys and interviews are carried out with the members of the organization who were trained, as well as members of the board of directors and workers of the organization.

Stage 3. Evaluation of the results of the application of the diagnosis

On the basis of the information obtained in the diagnosis, the results are evaluated for each proposed indicator.

Stage 4. Assessing the impact of training on the organization

An analysis of the previous stages is carried out and the final report is formed where the results of the application of the previous stages are reflected; in addition, the main weaknesses that the organization has and that prevent the application of new knowledge in order to improve business management are also reflected.

1. General objective. To evaluate the results of the performance of the directors trained in the Diploma of Business Direction and Management (DGE) in the organizations of the province of Pinar del Río.

2. Specific objectives

3. Scope. Applicable to all organizations.

4. Owner. The University of Pinar del Río "Hermanos Saíz Montes de Oca".

5. Responsibilities. They are determined according to the implication for the practical implementation of the procedure.

6. Description of the procedure. How has the evaluation of the training of cadres and reserves that passed the diploma of DGE, in terms of qualitative and quantitative improvements in their radius of action, within the organization, been structured?

The diploma of DGE is oriented by the maximum direction of the country, towards the impulse of the cadres to foment the change, starting from ideas and concrete innovative proposals in their organizations. This contributes to the development and implementation of the guidelines.

For this reason, the management style and results of the tables, based on the knowledge received in the diploma, should conceive the development of new attitudes, skills and values in their organizations to generate solutions and take advantage of opportunities.

Figure 1 represents the process for evaluating the impact of training.

Fig. 1 - Process for evaluating the impact of training

The actions by stages of the procedure are discussed below (Table 1)

Table 1 - Stages and actions for evaluating the impact of training

Stage 1. Compilation of information on the results of the diploma course



Gather information about the organization

1. Description of the organization to which the procedure applies.

2. Collection of data related to the thesis and students of the diploma of DGE.

Stage 2. Diagnosis

To diagnose the implementation of the contents of the diploma in the organization.

3. Interview graduates of the diploma and members of the organization.

4. Identify trainees who have been promoted, suspended from office or who remain in office. 

5. List of solutions proposed as a response to the institution's weaknesses.

6. Assessment of the number of theses implemented.

7. Determine if the organization uses tools for the analysis and interpretation of economic and financial statements as a function of decision making.

8. Determine how the organization's investment processes are evaluated.

9. Determine if they have implemented a comprehensive risk management system that responds to the fulfillment of the organization's objectives.

10. Identify if there have been modifications in the Risk Prevention Plan that respond to the management of the graduates.

11. Effectiveness of the risk prevention plan.

12. Check computerized processes and the management of computer resources to improve processes or services.

13. Assess whether ICTs are used based on the search for information to improve work performance.

14. Determine whether actions were taken to encourage innovation in the organization.

15. Determine whether scientific technical and advisory services have been provided to scientific institutions with the aim of solving organizational problems.

16. Determine whether actions have been taken to improve the quality of services and products.

17. Determine whether changes in maintenance management have been implemented to improve products or services.

18. Determine whether changes have been made to logistics management.

19. Determine if environmental management methodologies and tools are used in the organization.

20. Determine if the plans of the organization are made according to the Instruction 1 of 2011 of the President of the Councils of State and Ministers.

21. Determine if the training plan corresponds to the Diagnosis of Learning Needs (DNA).

22. Determine if they have a technology watch system in place.

23. Determine if they have an inventory of technologies and their evaluation.

25. Determine how the organization's investment processes are evaluated.

26. Determine if changes have been managed to increase customer satisfaction.

Stage 3. Evaluation of the results

Evaluating the results obtained in the application of the diagnosis.

27. Evaluate the implementation of the dissertations in the organization.

28. Evaluate working methods and styles.

29. Evaluate the maintenance policies in the organization.

30. Evaluate the management of logistical processes in the organization.

31. Evaluate the promotion of innovation for the improvement of products and services of the organization.

32. Evaluate the use of economic-financial tools as a function of decision-making.

33. Evaluate the identification and management of risks in the organization.

34. Evaluate the management of the labor organization.

35. Evaluate the use of information and communication technologies to improve the organization's products and services.

36. Evaluate actions taken to improve the quality of products and services.

37. Evaluate the environmental management of the organization.


38. Evaluate the planning and monitoring of investment processes.

Stage 4. Valuation

Valuate the impact of training on the organization.

39. To present a report with the result of the study in the organization where recommendations are exposed and the main weaknesses related to the use of the contents imparted in the Diploma of Direction and Business Management are identified.

In this last stage, in order to issue an assessment of the impact of the training, the results of the application of the procedure and the assessment of the following aspects must be taken into account:

At the organizational level:

At the individual level:

Terminology and definitions used

Cadres and Reserve personnel: persons that by their position and function are designated to be trained in the diploma of DGE in the authorized institutions.

Subordinates: worker who, responding to the management levels of the organization, is controlled by the persons trained in the DGE diploma.

Evaluators: group of people who, under the conditions of the organizations to be evaluated, will plan, organize and execute the tasks determined in the procedure.

Impact assessment: identifies changes that occur from the application of new knowledge, work styles and innovation projects in the economic and social practice of the organization.

Management: Planning, organization, execution and control, through which it is possible to make viable the actions around the fulfillment in an efficient and effective way of the objectives of the organization. In this way, it needs for its development the definition of the objectives and goals that guide the institutional and subordinate efforts. It also achieves mastery of certain procedures and techniques, favors spaces for systematic follow-up and control of the activities carried out, and promotes the rational use of existing resources.

From the above, it is valid to emphasize that:

A proposal is made for a procedure to measure the impact of training on companies, which has 4 stages, grouped into a series of steps that include quantitative and qualitative indicators and allow the impact of training on the organization to be assessed.

The proposed procedure consists of practical, feasible elements, so that it can be easily applied.



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